Energy-efficient light bulbs
Using energy-efficient light bulbs reduces energy consumption at the hotel.
Various types of energy-efficient lighting and affordable lighting technology are available, including compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and light-emitting diodes (LEDs), that are less powerful.
High-pressure sodium vapour lamps can be installed where faithful colour rendering is not essential (outdoors for instance).
Choice of efficient lighting
Halogen lamps and incandescent bulbs should be avoided as much as possible, as they give off unwanted heat.
Fluorescent lamps and neon tubes are increasing efficient (energy savings: 20%). Electronic ballasts prevent flickering, and can be turned on and off a nearly infinite number of times. These systems consume 30% less energy than conventional bulbs. Modern lamps are equipped to adjust light intensity, an ideal solution for direct or indirect ambient lighting. Colour temperature: in customer service areas: 827/830 (warm, warm white); in kitchen and laundry areas: 840 (neutral white).
Energy-efficient and compact fluorescent lamps are increasingly small, attractive and easy to use. They consume 15 to 20% less energy than conventional fluorescent lamps, and four times less than conventional light bulbs, for equivalent luminous flux (light output).
Halogen lamps create interesting lighting effects, but give off large amounts of heat, and consume a great deal of energy. IRC halogen lamps use 30% less energy and last much longer.
New LED technology offers many advantages: LED lamps are very economical, with a useful life of 50,000 hours; they give off no heat, and are available across a colour temperature range from intense white (4,000 K) to other colours.
Here are some examples of standard upgrades:
Initial situation Upgrade possible from incandescent bulbs to compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) with the same light output, but lower electricity consumption; T8 fluorescent tubes T5 fluorescent tubes, more energy efficient; incandescent exit lighting to LED exit lighting
The European Ecolabel requirements stipulate that at least 80% of electric lights at the establishment (100% of lights that are on more than five hours a day) must be rated Class A, as defined in Directive 98/11/EC.
What are the criteria for choosing energy-efficient lamps?
• Choose lamps that fit your needs: the characteristics and uses of different areas in the hotel must be taken into account. For example, the importance of colour rendering can vary from one area to another. Do not forget that lighting levels required for different areas are set by regulations in effect in each country. Pay attention to on/off cycles for lamps in spaces that are intensively used (bathrooms, for example).
• Choose certified products: some countries have certification and energy labels that indicate energy efficiency and quality ratings for products, e.g. the European energy label (defined in Directive 98/11/EC). Purchasing certified products (e.g. Class A lamps with European energy label certification) is a good way to be sure you are investing in highly efficient new equipment.
• If you want to upgrade from conventional lamps to energy-efficient lamps, make sure the bulbs you purchase are compatible will your lighting systems.
• Topten is an online tool for customers that presents the best devices is different product categories: www.topten.info/
• When energy-efficiency lamps reach the end of their useful life they must be taken to a recycling centre because they may contain hazardous substances. They may be returned to the distributor or deposited at an authorised waste collection point.
• The first step is to list all lamps and light bulbs currently in use in the hotel (guest rooms, stairway landings, dining room, kitchen, outdoor areas, etc.).
• For each zone, try to determine whether it is preferable to use energy-efficient light bulbs and/or automatic lighting controls (solution no. XI). If you plan to install energy-efficient light bulbs and a lighting control system, make sure that you choose bulbs that work with the control system (programmes or motion sensors, for example).
• Compact fluorescent lamp: approx. €15
Annual consumption 3h/day Annual cost
conventional lamp 75W 82.1 kWh €5.74
energy-efficient lamp 16.4 kWh €1.15
Approximate payback time:
• < 1-3 years
It should be noted that costs and payback times are highly dependent on the local setting and the initial situation of the hotel.
A number of hotels have taken action to reduce their energy consumption for lighting. These are the steps taken by the Ecolodge des Chartrons (Gironde):
• better use of daylighting: tubular systems were installed in windowless bathrooms, to capture light at the roof level and direct it to the interior.
• more efficient lighting: 90% of lamp are low-energy bulbs (fluorescent lamps, LEDs in ceiling lights)
At the Hotel de la Pérouse 80% of light fixtures use low-energy lamps.
The Solar Hotel in Paris has adopted a proactive and militant position, and claims to be the first economically-priced environmentally-aware urban hotel in Paris. Hallways, salons and rooms are equipped with low-energy LED and compact fluorescent lamps for lighting.
The Hotel des Orangeries has concentrated on installing low-energy lamps in common areas and in guest rooms, and solar-powered lighting is used outdoors.
Energy savings: Effective lighting is a very profitable and low-risk investment. Typical payback times range from one to three years.
Potential energy savings for lighting: up to 75%
Lower labour costs: As energy-efficient lamps have a longer life than conventional bulbs (1), the labour costs associated with changing light bulbs are lower.
(1) Compact fluorescent lamps last four to eight times longer than incandescent bulbs
Less flicker: Energy-efficient fluorescent lamps with high-frequency electronic ballasts are more comfortable for customers and staff than lamps with conventional magnetic ballasts.
Improved image for the establishment
• Using efficient lighting will improve your environmental image.
• Examples of energy savings are given below (actual savings will depend on equipment efficiency and total hours of operation).
Standard incandescent bulb Replaced with compact fluorescent lamps load savings (in %)
35 W 7-9 W 64 – 73%
40 W 11-13 W 67 – 73%
60 W 15 W 75%
75 W 18-30 W 73 – 81%
100 W 38-30 W 70 – 73%
Replacement of incandescent bulbs with compact fluorescent lamps (Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency)
T5 fluorescent tubes are 30% more efficient than old T8 tubes
Reduced CO2 emission
• For a hotel of 1,000 m² that uses 30 kWh/m² of electricity annually, and applying emission factors for France, a 75% savings in energy consumption represents:
1.90 t CO2 eq of avoided emissions each year
Emission factors for electricity in France: 84.3 g CO2 / kWh.
Emission factors for natural gas in France: 331 g CO2 / kWh (Source: ADEME).
• Ease of implementation: Easy(*)
• Best time: can be put into place at any time.
• Relevant initial situation: the hotel does not used energy-efficient light bulbs.